expectancy in France east one longest in the
of more than 75 years will have increased by 40% from
Action on 2
of the disease by the nutrition
• Treatment of
the complications: the food is a care
A - ORAL AGEING:
3% of the
old people keep healthy teeth.
a total loss of teeth.
dental hygiene in 100% of the cases in the services of
Appearance of perlèche
Apparatuses source of iatrogenic affections when the
resins become porous
Modifications of the tooth:
Proliferation of the dentine
of the pulp cavity
Retraction of the gum
Accumulation of dental plaque: disease
away of the tooth
Appearance of decays on the level of the collet
modification of the food practices.
protidic and vitamin deficiencies.
state of the oral cavity takes part in the maintenance
of the nutritional statute.
care and hygiene should not be neglected at the old
DISTURBANCES OF THE TASTE:
which makes it possible to distinguish savours.
The loss of
the taste is always accompanied by anorexia.
is a key factor of the appetite.
CAUSES OF THE DISTURBANCE OF THE TASTE:
modify the taste.
a reduction in salivation.
being soaked correctly, the molecules carrying savours
will be less active.
Dehydration: dryness of the mouth
Malnutrition: the cellular budding of the buds of the
taste slows down
in B3 vitamin and zinc
lesion of the cranial nerves
Deterioration of the cellular receivers:
CONCLUSION, IT WILL BE NECESSARY:
• To modify
or stop the responsible drugs
• To treat
• To treat
stimulate the taste
AGEING OF THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM:
membranes adapt and can compensate for their own
involves a reduction late and moderate in
• Of the
Needs and deficiencies:
the most abundant compound of the human body.
It plays of
the major roles in the organization:
in the proportion in the organization with
The risk of
dehydration is very important.
of water minimum per day.
More 500 DC
per degree of temperature to the top of 37° in the event
the generally accepted ideas, the energy needs for the
old people are at least equivalent to those of the young
60% for the
basal metabolism which practically does not vary with
the age 10% related to the heating effect of the food
30% related to the physical exercise: the expenditure
necessary for the same exercise is larger.
REQUIREMENTS IN ENERGY:
component of all the alive beings. 1 g/Kg/j for an adult
1,25 g/Kg/j for an old person.
proteins will be correctly used only if they are
accompanied by a sufficient contribution in
event of hypercatabolism, the requirements out of
proteins will be increased.
provide energy in the most concentrated form.
the essential fatty acids.
energy of the organization constitute
REQUIREMENTS IN LIPIDS:
the same ones as the adult: 35% of the AET.
essential to the life: precursor of various hormones,
the vitamin D and biliary salts necessary to the
absorption of greases.
No the mode
hypocholestérolémiant after 70 years, except if the
hypercholesterolemy were known and treated.
energy most quickly usable.
REQUIREMENTS OUT OF GLUCIDS:
equivalent to those of an adult: 50% of the AET (total
people present a particular craving for the sweetened
their complex sugar contributions involuntarily.
glucidic contributions will have to come in majority
from complex glucids: bread, rices, vegetables
INTOLERANCE WITH GLUCOSE:
the reduction in the production of insulin.
the high risk of vitamin deficiency.
FACTORS OF RISKS:
ones as those of the denutrition:
• Too weak
Needs for physiological reasons
Loneliness, social insulation, weakness of the
• B1, B3,
B6, B12, C, Acid folic: behavior and mood
• B9, B12:
Reduction in the absorption of iron
• B6, B9,
C, D, E: immunizing deficit
osteomalacia, fractures To check the food
Supplémentation in the event of malnutrition or
of surgical stress.
TRACE ELEMENTS AND MINERALS:
Microphone-nutrients for which the requirements
are not met when the total energy contributions are
lower than 1500 Kcal/j.
Requirements out of calcium:
coupled with a contribution of D3 vitamin: 800
Requirements out of magnesium:
not a factor of risk of deficiency out of iron.
covered by the food contributions.
systematic supplémentations are dangerous because of
deficiency disturbs the taste.
intervenes in the cicatrization of the wounds.
insufficiency of contribution out of zinc is frequent at
the subjects in institution.
low in crudenesses.
Complementation in case:
of the cicatrization
play a fundamental part in protection against the
effects of ageing by its antioxydant action.
prolonged administration can prove to be toxic.
contribution is advised during a prolonged artificial
nutrition: 100 to 200 µg/j.
components of the membranes of the vegetable
Metabolism of glucids and the lipids
Absorption of rock salt
to 25 food fibre g/j:
• 150 G of
• 200 G of
believed or cooked fruits
• 200 G of
him only is not responsible for malnutrition.
with the age, the events at the origin of a reduction in
the contributions increase.
inflammatory phenomena can make rock the nutritional
to detect any risk of denutrition as soon as
A - EVALUATION OF THE NUTRITIONAL
not ideal marker.
A loss of
weight of 2 kg in 1 month or 4 kg in 6 months must
b) Index of
Circumference brachiale < 23 cm
Calf: < 31 cm
of the cutaneous folds tricipal or
alarm: 35 g/l.
malnutrition: < 30 g
Lowered in the
Go up very quickly with the
Value of alarm: 200
malnutrition: < 150 mg
indicates the recent character and the intensity of the
of 12 h.
Pathological value > 20 mg/l.
the seniority of the inflammatory process.
calculate the PIMI.
• 1 to 10:
• 11 to 20:
• 21 to 30:
• > 30:
QUESTIONNAIRES Of NUTRITIONAL EVALUATION:
evaluation of Brocker:
subject at the risk.
CONSEQUENCES OF MALNUTRITION:
Hypercatabolism involving a vicious
Exhaustion of the reserves of the
accident leads to the overconsumption of
person never reconstitutes completely her reserves after
an acute episode.
old person to the infections.
in the albumin rate.
increase in the free and active shape of certain
several signs of alarm of malnutrition:
Insufficient financial Incomes
• Loss of
physical or psychic autonomy
Widowhood, loneliness, depressive state
• Two meals
per day only
• More than
3 medicamentous specialities per day:
• Loss of 2
KG in the last month or 4 kg in the last 6 months
Albuminémie < 35 g
• Any acute severe
The food needs for an old person are
the same ones as those of the adult.
Food must be varied and
appétissante, taken preferably as a group or
A - VARIOUS CONTRIBUTIONS
B - VARIOUS RESTRICTIVE
If they are essential transitorily
for certain pathologies:
• They should not be prescribed with
the long course
• They must
be revalued in the following weeks
the diabetes only with the top of 1,4 g/l.
only fast sugars.
MODES HYPERCALORIQUES AND
allow the cellular restoration by an effective anabolism
oral way becomes impossible.
used without delay.
during a sufficient time to see the effects.
Food and institution:
act is not only biological.
It has a
must remain a source of pleasure until the end of the
must be one privileged moment.
A - DEVELOPMENT OF THE MENUS:
are establish by professionals starting from basic food
The goal is
to respect food balance in function:
• Of the
recommended food needs
psychological and physiological considerations
technical considerations: seasons, conservation
framework and user-friendliness stimulate the appetite
and support the food catch.
Questionnaire on the food tastes and practices,
as well as the religious considerations.
the meals according to the tastes of the patient.
a pleasant framework: temperature, luminosity,
attention to the plan of table: provision and
To think of
announcing the menu.
attention to the presentation of the dishes or the
THE PERSON CAN ONLY EAT:
To help a
person to eat, it is not inevitably to give him the
the patient comfortably.
sure that the person can be useful herself of her forks
To think of
unpacking conditioned food.
drink during the meals, even if it is not
press the patient, whom it can take his time.
THE PERSON CANNOT ONLY EAT:
necessary to be conscious that to be made give to eat is
a source of gene, frustration, impatience and
must make sure that:
received meal is in conformity with the order
is appropriate for the health of the patient
patient ate, and in which quantity
prescribed dietetic products were consumed
If a food
monitoring is installation, the IDE must make sure that
the documents are filled out.
supervise the food conservation in the rooms.
The food is
Posting of page 181